Tech & Science 'Ghost' particles from black-hole jetstream found in Arctic

03:30  13 july  2018
03:30  13 july  2018 Source:   theage.com.au

Cosmic Ray Mystery Finally Cracked Thanks To Supermassive Black Hole Beaming Energy Straight At Earth

  Cosmic Ray Mystery Finally Cracked Thanks To Supermassive Black Hole Beaming Energy Straight At Earth <p>More recently, scientists observed the coincidence of neutrinos and light from the well-studied supernova of 1987, explained Freya Blekman, a physicist at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel who was not involved with the study.</p>This week, scientists from institutions across the globe announced they have confirmed a source of these ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, thanks to combined data from light and a single high-energy neutrino particle. That source is a blazar, a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy emitting high-energy jets of light and radiation pointed straight at Earth.

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A simple black hole and galaxy particle simulation I did for school.

Neutrinos from the jet stream of a black hole have been detected in the South Pole.© IceCube/NASA Neutrinos from the jet stream of a black hole have been detected in the South Pole.

Neutrinos are the universe’s ghosts. Trillions of these particles move through us all the time at close to the speed of light. We cannot see, feel or sense them

For the first time, scientists have captured a neutrino and traced its origin - a supermassive black hole 4 billion light-years away.

The IceCube observatory, the world's largest neutrino detector, at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica.© New York Times The IceCube observatory, the world's largest neutrino detector, at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica.

The discovery could reveal more about some of the universe's great mysteries - black holes and dark matter.

It Came From a Black Hole, and Landed in Antarctica

  It Came From a Black Hole, and Landed in Antarctica For the first time, astronomers followed cosmic neutrinos into the fire-spitting heart of a supermassive blazar.It was the smallest bullet you could possibly imagine, a subatomic particle weighing barely more than a thought. It had been fired out of a gravitational gun barrel by a cosmic blunderbuss, a supermassive black hole.

Now researchers have observed a jet during a period of extreme outburst and found evidence that streams of particles wind a corkscrew path away from the black hole , as the leading hypothesis predicts.

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“We are truly in the era of astro-particle physics," says Swinburne University astronomer Associate Professor Alan Duffy. "This may lead to us finally learning how black holes grow and feed, as well as shed a light on dark matter."

What is a neutrino?

A neutrino hitting a molecule of ice (artist's impression). The neutrino is the white circle in the centre of the red-coloured ice molecule.© Nicolle R. Fuller/NSF/IceCube A neutrino hitting a molecule of ice (artist's impression). The neutrino is the white circle in the centre of the red-coloured ice molecule.

A neutrino is one of the universe's fundamental particles, says Adelaide University Associate Professor Gary Hill, who is a member of the international team behind the discovery.

But unlike nearly every other particle, it has no mass, no electric charge, and does not interact with anything. It just exists, alone, in the universe.

New South African Telescope Releases Epic Image Of The Galactic Centre

  New South African Telescope Releases Epic Image Of The Galactic Centre You’re looking at the centre of our galactic home, the Milky Way, as imaged by 64 radio telescopes in the South African wilderness.&nbsp; You’re looking at the centre of our galactic home, the Milky Way, as imaged by 64 radio telescopes in the South African wilderness.

A neutrino observatory based in Antarctica has confirmed the detection of massless particles deep within the South Pole’s ice. They were created from astrophysical sources like black holes and exploding stars throughout the Milky Way and beyond.

A supermassive black hole was recently caught gobbling up a star, and the stream of particles the black hole spat out could reveal a secret principle that governs how galaxies grow. The black hole feast was first detected on Nov.

They are produced when very small particles called protons smack into each other at high speed.

To find one, you dig

The IceCube Lab, where the neutrino was found and traced.© Icecube/NSF The IceCube Lab, where the neutrino was found and traced.

To search for a ghost, you go under the ice.

Scientists dug 2.5 kilometres beneath the South Pole, where they built the IceCube Neutrino Observatory.

Professor Hill spent several seasons living on the ice cap to help build it. “It was like being on a big construction site, except it was minus 20 or 30 degrees all the time. It was a massive engineering feat.”

Very, very rarely neutrinos bump into other particles, releasing a tiny burst of radiation and a pale blue light. This is the only way of knowing they are there. IceCube’s sensors monitor one square kilometre of ice for those telltale bursts of light.

This artist's impression shows the dust torus around a super-massive black hole and, coming from the centre, the jetstream.© ESA/Hubble This artist's impression shows the dust torus around a super-massive black hole and, coming from the centre, the jetstream.

So far, they’ve been operating for almost eight years. In that time, they’ve found maybe 1000 high-speed neutrinos - including this one.

Rare snowy owl found in famed New York City jail

  Rare snowy owl found in famed New York City jail A New York City correction officer on Sunday discovered a snowy owl in a courtyard at the famed jail, Rikers Island, The New York Times reported. The city has just experienced a heat wave and it is unclear how the native to the Arctic tundra ended up there. The Wild Bird Fund, a nonprofit that assists migratory birds, theorized on Twitter that the bird may have given chase to something and then could not get out.Snowy owls are considered among the most charismatic wildlife species in the world. The birds are the heaviest owl in North America, ranging from 3 to 6 pounds. They stand 2 feet tall and have 5-foot wingspans.

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Astronomers have uncovered a near-record breaking supermassive black hole , weighing 17 billion suns, in an unlikely place.

Scientists determined that the neutrino found on the South Pole was shot out of the jetstream of an extremely powerful black hole in a blazar galaxy 4 billion light-years away.

Blazar galaxies have huge black holes at their centre. These black holes are so powerful they produce a huge jet of red-hot energy - like the exhaust of a jet engine.

The jet is so powerful it accelerates protons to such a speed that when they collide a neutrino is produced.

“This guy [the black hole] is 4 billion light-years away from Earth. That means this neutrino started its journey probably around the time the Earth was born,” says Professor Hill.

Now what?

An artist's impression of a neutrino detector buried deep beneath the ice. The blue light is the signal for a passing neutrino.© Nicolle R. Fuller/NSF/IceCube An artist's impression of a neutrino detector buried deep beneath the ice. The blue light is the signal for a passing neutrino.

Scientists are already thinking up ways of using this discovery to find out more about the universe, especially about dark matter.

Dark matter makes up 25 per cent of the universe, but is even more ghostly than a neutrino – we are yet to detect it at all.

“We know there is dark matter all around us,” says Professor Hill. “Some of it will get trapped in the core of the Sun and the core of the Earth, and eventually release neutrinos – now we’re hunting for those.”

Ghost scam targeting elderly Chinese in Australia prompts warning .
Fraudsters who prey on elderly women of Chinese descent using what is known as a "blessing" or "ghost" scam to trick them into parting with their valuables have begun operating in Australia, according to WA Police. The scam, which has reportedly existed in Chinese communities across the world since the early 2000s, relies heavily on cultural and traditional beliefs to instil fear in vulnerable people with an Asian background, making them believe their family members are at risk from spirits and need Eastern medicine from a healer to protect them.

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