Tech & Science The Scientific Benefits Of Total Solar Eclipses

07:17  13 august  2017
07:17  13 august  2017 Source:   International Business Times

How Blind Astronomers Will Observe the Solar Eclipse

  How Blind Astronomers Will Observe the Solar Eclipse Like millions of other people, Wanda Diaz Merced plans to observe the August 21 total solar eclipse, when the moon’s shadow will sweep across the sun and, for a few brief moments, coat parts of the United States in darkness.  Diaz Merced, an astrophysicist, is blind, with just 3 percent of peripheral vision in her right eye, and none in her left. She has been working with a team at Harvard University to develop a program that will convert sunlight into sound, allowing her to hear the solar eclipse. The sound will be generated in real time, changing as the dark silhouette of the moon appears over the face of the bright sun, blocking its light.

Solar Eclipses . An eclipse of the Sun occurs when the Earth passes through the Moon's shadow. As the Moon moves in its orbit (at 1 km/s), the position of the shadow changes, so total solar eclipses usually only last a minute or two in a given location.

Total solar eclipses occur when the New Moon comes between the Sun and Earth and casts the darkest part of its shadow, the umbra, on Earth. A full solar eclipse , known as totality , is almost as dark as night.

  The Scientific Benefits Of Total Solar Eclipses © Provided by IBT US If you’ve never seen a solar eclipse before, you should make an effort to witness the breathtaking event on August 21. While only people in the US will be able to see the total eclipse – in which the moon completely blocks the light from the sun – those living in parts of South America, Africa and Europe should be able to see at least a partial solar eclipse.

Solar eclipses occur when the moon passes between the Earth and the sun so that it blocks part or all of the sunlight as viewed from a particular location on our planet. Earth is the only planet in the solar system where this can happen in this way. This is because of the moon’s size and its relative distance from the sun – when viewed from the Earth, it can identically cover the bright solar disc to reveal the tenuous, wispy outer atmosphere of the star (called the solar corona).

Solar eclipse 2017: what you need to know

  Solar eclipse 2017: what you need to know Are you ready? On August 21st, the Great American Eclipse will descend upon the United States, casting its shadow from coast to coast for the first time since 1918. It’s perhaps one of the biggest astronomical events of the decade. And we are here to help you prepare for it.Whether you’re traveling to an optimal viewing place or staying put where you live, here’s what you need to know about the big day. I haven’t been on the internet for a while. What is an eclipse again?An eclipse is the serendipitous alignment of the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun.

Solar Eclipses . An eclipse of the Sun occurs when the Earth passes through the Moon's shadow. As the Moon moves in its orbit, the position of the shadow changes, so total solar eclipses usually only last a minute or two in a given location.

From a typical spot on earth, a total solar eclipse will only occur once every four hundred years on average. Fewer than one in four people in the past, lacking the benefit of modern scientific foreknowledge and travel possibilities

An eclipse does not happen every time the moon travels around the Earth. This is because its orbit has a slight inclination (about five degrees) relative to our planet’s journey around the sun. However when aligned correctly, the result is an awesome, emotional experience. Once the eclipse has begun, the moon continues to eat its way across the blazing sun before darkness falls, the temperature drops and the sky is dominated by a radiant crown around the moon. It happens approximately every 18 months.

On August 21, the moon’s shadow will travel west to east, touching land at Lincoln Beach, Oregon at 09:05 Pacific Daylight Time before speeding across North America at up to 1km per second and finally exiting close to Charleston, South Carolina, at 16:09 Eastern Daylight Time. The longest total eclipse will occur close to the town of Carbondale, Illinois – lasting about two minutes and 40 seconds.

What Solar Eclipses Have Taught Us About the Universe

  What Solar Eclipses Have Taught Us About the Universe Total solar eclipses like the one that will cross the U.S. on Aug. 21 have captured the attention of astronomers throughout history — and have often led to advances in our understanding of how the universe works. Astronomers have been studying solar eclipses for centuries. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe and his apprentice German astronomer Johannes Kepler studied eclipses to try to arrive at a rough estimate of the moon’s diameter.

Solar eclipses have been recorded for many years. There are three different types of solar eclipses : partial, annular and total . A partial eclipse occurs when only part of the Sun is hidden by the Moon.

he 2017 Total Solar Eclipse (TSE2017) will occur on August 21 in the continental United States, bringing totality to this area for the first time since This action by superintendents and principals is actu-ally borne of lack of scientific knowledge, a perpetuation of myths, and ungrounded fears.

Anywhere within the 110km wide path of the eclipse, observers will be able to see the sun completely covered. Outside of that, sky-watchers will still see a partial eclipse with decreasing percentages of the sun’s surface covered as one moves away from this narrow corridor. It is estimated that over 12m Americans live in the path of the total eclipse itself and another 200m people within a day’s drive of it. This is science engagement on an unprecedented scale and is likely to be the most orchestrated eclipse viewing event ever undertaken.

Digital deluge

Social media activity has been increasing for months now, building up the anticipation to be part of this rare event. Expect Twitter, Facebook, Snapchat, Flickr and Instagram to be swamped with eclipse pictures during and after the event. In fact, the eclipse should be one of the most digitally recorded events ever, which could be of use to scientists. The Citizen CATE (Continental-America Telescopic Eclipse) experiment aims to capture images of the inner solar corona using a network of more than 60 telescopes operated by citizen scientists, high school groups and universities.

During Eclipses, Astronomers Try to Reveal the Secrets of the Solar Wind

  During Eclipses, Astronomers Try to Reveal the Secrets of the Solar Wind Solar activity refers to the number of CMEs exploding on the sun's surface, along with bright explosions of light called solar flares. Solar activity increases and decreases on an 11-year cycle, and that cycle is also reflected in the number of sunspots on the sun's surface. Sunspots are dark blotches (visible with solar viewing glasses) of relatively "cool" material that form in places where bundles of magnetic-field lines burst through the photosphere.

Total solar eclipses happen about once every 18 months, but they are only visible over a relatively small area (as opposed to partial solar eclipses or lunar eclipses , which are usually visible across multiple continents).

Total Solar Eclipse Animation. Solar eclipses result from the alignment of the Sun, Moon, and Earth. Total solar eclipses — in which the Sun is completely blocked by the Moon — are a spectacular and rare sight to witness.

Similarly, the Eclipse Mega-movie is asking observers to use their app to upload eclipse images along the path of totality to produce an expanded and continuous film of the total eclipse as it crosses the country. Both of these experiments will produce unique data-sets of the white light corona, a region that is usually impossible to observe because the exceptionally bright solar disc hides it from view. We will be able to examine like never before the detailed structure of the solar corona and how it is dragged out into space by the solar wind.

There is also a big focus on education. A top priority is making sure that people know how to safely view the eclipse. Looking directly at the sun is unsafe except during that brief period of the total eclipse. It is vitally important that only special solar filters, such as certified eclipse glasses, are used. Unfiltered cameras, telescopes, binoculars or other optical devices concentrate the solar rays and are a definite no-go in regard to eye safety. If no filters are available, it is best to use a pinhole camera to project the eclipse indirectly.

Eclipse-chasers trot the globe, addicted to Moon's shadow

  Eclipse-chasers trot the globe, addicted to Moon's shadow Eclipse-chasers are a dedicated crew of scientists who travel the globe to catch a few moments in eerie darkness, and even after seeing dozens of eclipses, they say they can't get enough.Also known as "umbraphiles," these self-described addicts live their lives in pursuit of the intense experience of falling under the Moon's shadow.

A total solar eclipse , or total eclipse of the sun, happens when the moon passes directly between the sun and the Earth and completely covers the entire face of the sun. The phenomenon typically only lasts for about two minutes for those standing within the eclipse ’s path of totality .

Total solar eclipses gave humans the first opportunity to see this region of Earth's nearest star. From the discovery of one of the most abundant elements in the universe to insights about the nature of space and time, solar eclipses have provided natural laboratories for intriguing scientific discoveries.

It is also important to take advantage of the amazing opportunity to inform a huge population about the science behind the event. There are thousands of astronomy-oriented events, parties even, being hosted along the path of totality.

New science?

Scientists are equally excited. Eleven NASA and NOAA satellites, high-altitude balloons, hundreds of ground-based telescopes and even the International Space Station will all take advantage of this unique shadow-chase across the surface of the Earth. However, it is not just looking up at the moon and sun that is important. Total eclipses also provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to examine our own planet under quite unusual conditions.

NASA says that observers across several states will measure the radiant energy from the sun into the Earth’s atmosphere from the ground as well as from space. This should provide new insights into how the incident solar energy in our atmosphere changes when particles, clouds and in this case the moon, prevents sunlight from reaching the surface of the planet.

I will be fortunate enough to be part of a four-hour live online telecast of the eclipse from Carbondale via NASA’s video podcast EDGE. This will include interviews with scientists and live panel questions, high-resolution sun images and a balloon launch. As a solar physicist who can only usually observe the solar corona from space by satellite instrumentation, it is special to be able to glimpse the corona with the (protected) naked eye for a brief time.

Total solar eclipse 2017: 6 bizarre things that will happen

  Total solar eclipse 2017: 6 bizarre things that will happen Things get a little weird during an eclipse. Here are six things to look for."A totally eclipsed sun is 10,000 times fainter than one that is 99 percent covered by the moon," Meg Pickett, astrophysicist and a professor of physics at Lawrence University told CNET. The change in light during an eclipse makes the temperature drop suddenly, which makes animals think that night is coming.

On Aug. 21, a total solar eclipse will sweep coast to coast across the United States. Below are seven such apps, which can provide you with information about when the eclipse will take place in your location, scientific information about the eclipse , and even audible announcements about when to

The solar eclipse started around 5:28 A.M. in Patna and surrounding areas. Thick rain clouds moved in and out as the eclipse progressed, so it The entire world looked different in color as bands spread across the sky. Then there was a final diamondlike ring around the sun before total darkness set in.

One interesting part to all this is the fact that the US gets another chance in seven years to maximize the opportunities that the eclipse brings.

It is said that one of the longlasting legacies of the Apollo missions to the moon is the number of American scientists today who were inspired to be engineers and scientists. Though this solar eclipse is science engagement in a different manner, the end goal is the same – bringing about not just a greater appreciation of the Earth, and solar or lunar research, but also sparking a desire in many young people to be the science leaders of the future.

Robert William Walsh, Professor of Solar Physics, University of Central Lancashire

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Solar eclipses: Everything you need to know .
Solar eclipses, when the Moon totally or partially blocks out the Sun, still seem to many people a random and almost magical phenomenon. "Mr Eclipse" explains everything you need to know.Solar eclipses, when the Moon totally or partially blocks out the Sun, still seem to many people a random and almost magical phenomenon, but they can be very accurately predicted, says Fred Espenak, an American astrophysicist

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